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ModelE Climate Simulations

20th Century Transient Simulations with Beryllium-10

These webpages present data products related to the journal article "Model-based constraints on interpreting 20th century trends in ice-core 10Be" by Field and Schmidt (2009). See also Field et. al. (2006) for an introduction to modeling beryllium-10.

The data consist of two ensembles of model runs, with five model runs in each ensemble. Both ensembles were run from 1880-2000 and were forced with observed sea-surface temperature and sea ice values. The first ensemble (E2TcfTrM23) contains no additional forcings and was run with an unchanging pre-industrial atmospheric composition. The second ensemble (E2TcfTr1M23) uses the same sea-surface temperatures and sea ice values, and is additionally forced with changing atmospheric composition, transient volcanic eruptions, annually varying solar irradiance, and a parameterized ozone response to the irradiance changes (see Hansen et. al., 2005). In both ensembles, beryllium-7 and beryllium-10 production vary on an annual basis, with production levels determined from a carbon-14-based reconstruction of the solar modulation parameter (Muscheler et al., 2007).

Monthly time series of key model diagnostics relating to beryllium-10 were averaged over the five runs and can be accessed using the links below. Data can be compared between different time periods from a given ensemble. The two ensembles can also be compared in order to show the effects of the additional climate forcings.

The standard time varying forcings applied in most runs are:

  • Well-mixed greenhouse gas concentration (CO2, N2O, CH4, CFCs)
  • Stratospheric water vapor generated by CH4 oxidation
  • Ozone concentration
  • Tropospheric aerosols (sulfates, nitrates, carbons)
  • Aerosol indirect effect on cloud cover
  • Stratospheric aerosols (volcanoes)
  • Solar irradiance
  • Land use (affecting albedo and evapotranspiration)
  • Snow and ice albedo changes caused by soot deposits

To display the data, first select one of the four plot types below:


Field, C.V., G.A. Schmidt, D. Koch, and C. Salyk, 2006: Modeling production and climate-related impacts on 10Be concentration in ice cores. J. Geophys. Res. 111, D15107, doi:10.1029/2005JD006410.

Field, C.V, and G.A. Schmidt, 2009: Model-based constraints on interpreting 20th century trends in ice-core 10Be. J. Geophys. Res., 114, D12110, doi:10.1029/2008JD011217.

Hansen, J., Mki. Sato, R. Ruedy, L. Nazarenko, A. Lacis, G.A. Schmidt, G. Russell, I. Aleinov, M. Bauer, S. Bauer, N. Bell, B. Cairns, V. Canuto, M. Chandler, Y. Cheng, A. Del Genio, G. Faluvegi, E. Fleming, A. Friend, T. Hall, C. Jackman, M. Kelley, N.Y. Kiang, D. Koch, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, S. Menon, R.L. Miller, P. Minnis, T. Novakov, V. Oinas, Ja. Perlwitz, Ju. Perlwitz, D. Rind, A. Romanou, D. Shindell, P. Stone, S. Sun, N. Tausnev, D. Thresher, B. Wielicki, T. Wong, M. Yao, and S. Zhang, 2005: Efficacy of climate forcings. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D18104, doi:10.1029/2005JD005776.

Muscheler, R., F. Joos, J. Beer, S.A. Müller, M. Vonmoos, and i. Snowball, 2007: Solar activity during the last 1000 yr inferred from radionuclide records. Quat. Sci. Rev., 26, 82-97, doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2006.07.012.


Please address scientific inquiries about these simulations to Dr. Gavin Schmidt.

Please address technical questions about these webpages to Dr. Reto Ruedy.