GISS Surface Temperature Analysis


When referencing the GISTEMP v4 data, please cite both this website as well our most recent scholarly publication about the analysis. In citing the website, be sure to include the date of access.

  • GISTEMP Team, 2024: GISS Surface Temperature Analysis (GISTEMP), version 4. NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies. Dataset accessed 20YY-MM-DD at
  • Lenssen, N., G. Schmidt, J. Hansen, M. Menne, A. Persin, R. Ruedy, and D. Zyss, 2019: Improvements in the GISTEMP uncertainty model. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 124, no. 12, 6307-6326, doi:10.1029/2018JD029522.

GISS Analysis

The most recent journal paper describing the GISS surface temperature analysis is:

Previous articles include:

Also pertaining to the GISS surface temperature analysis is:

Current (v4) Sources for Station Data

  • Menne, M.J., C.N. Williams, B.E. Gleason, J.J. Rennie, and J.H. Lawrimore, 2018: The Global Historical Climatology Network Monthly Temperature Dataset, Version 4. J. Climate, 31, 9835–9854,

Current (v4) Sources for Ocean Data

  • Huang, B., P.W. Thorne, V.F. Banzon, T. Boyer, G. Chepurin, J.H. Lawrimore, M.J. Menne, T.M. Smith, R.S. Vose, and H. Zhang, 2017: Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature version 5 (ERSSTv5): Upgrades, validations, and intercomparisons. J. Climate, 30, 8179-8205, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0836.1 .

Past Sources for Station Data

  • Karl, T.R., C.N. Williams, Jr., and F.T. Quinlan. 1990. United States Historical Climatology Network (HCN) Serial Temperature and Precipitation Data. ORNL/CDIAC-30, NDP-019/R1. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.
  • Peterson, T.C., and R.S. Vose 1997. An overview of the Global Historical Climatology Network temperature database. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 78, 2837-2849, doi:10.1175/1520-0477(1997)078<2837:AOOTGH>2.0.CO;2.
  • Peterson, T.C., R.S. Vose, R. Schmoyer, and V. Razuvaev, 1998: Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) quality control of monthly temperature data. Int. J. Climatol., 18, 1169-1179, doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0088(199809)18:11<1169::AID-JOC309>3.0.CO;2-U.
  • Menne, M.J., C.N. Williams, and R.S. Vose 2009. The U.S. Historical Climatology Network Monthly Temperature Data, Version 2. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 90, 993-1007, doi:10.1175/2008BAMS2613.1.
  • Lawrimore, J.H., M.J. Menne, B.E. Gleason, C.N. Williams, D.B. Wuertz, R.S. Vose, and J. Rennie, 2011: An overview of the Global Historical Climatology Network monthly mean temperature data set, version 3. J. Geophys. Res., 116, D19121, doi:10.1029/2011JD016187.
  • Turner, J., S.R. Colwell, G.J. Marshall, T.A. Lachlan-Cope, A.M. Carleton, P.D. Jones, V. Lagun, P.A. Reid, and S. Iagovkina, 2004: The SCAR READER project: Toward a high-quality database of mean Antarctic meteorological observations. J. Climate, 17, 2890-2898, doi:10.1175/1520-0442(2004)017<2890:TSRPTA>3.0.CO;2.

Past Sources for Ocean Data

  • Rayner, N. 2000. HadISST1 Sea Ice and Sea Surface Temperature Files. Hadley Center, Bracknell, U.K.
  • Reynolds, R.W., and T.M. Smith 1994. Improved global sea surface temperature analyses. J. Climate, 7, 929-948, doi:10.1175/1520-0442(1994)007<0929:IGSSTA>2.0.CO;2.
  • Smith, T.M., R.W. Reynolds, R.E. Livesay, and D.C. Stokes 1996. Reconstruction of historical sea surface temperature using empirical orthogonal functions. J. Climate, 9, 1403-1420, doi:10.1175/1520-0442(1996)009<1403:ROHSST>2.0.CO;2.
  • Reynolds, R.W., N.A. Rayner, T.M. Smith, D.C. Stokes, and W. Wang 2002. An improved in situ and satellite SST analysis for climate. J. Climate, 15, 1609-1625, doi:10.1175/1520-0442(2002)015<1609:AIISAS>2.0.CO;2.
  • Smith, T.M., R.W. Reynolds, Thomas C. Peterson, and Jay Lawrimore, 2008: Improvements to NOAA's historical merged land-ocean surface temperature analysis (1880-2006). J. Climate, 21, 2283-2296, doi:10.1175/2007JCLI2100.1.

Related Publications

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