GISS Surface Temperature Analysis (GISTEMP v4)

The GISS Surface Temperature Analysis version 4 (GISTEMP v4) is an estimate of global surface temperature change. Graphs and tables are updated around the middle of every month using current data files from NOAA GHCN v4 (meteorological stations) and ERSST v5 (ocean areas), combined as described in our publications Hansen et al. (2010) and Lenssen et al. (2019). These updated files incorporate reports for the previous month and also late reports and corrections for earlier months.

News and Updates

Feb. 8, 2024: Three stations in Northern Canada were discovered to have a discontinuity in their records that is not present in the any other station in that area. This was reported to NOAA/NCEI and the reports after the discontinuity were removed.

Jan. 12, 2024: NASA has posted a news release 2023 annual global temperature anomaly. The NASA Earth Observatory website has also posted an explainer about causes of the record anomaly.

See the GISTEMP News page for a list of NASA releases and other articles and features related to the GISTEMP analysis. Announcements when our monthly updates are released are posted to the NASA/GISS Twitter feed.

See the Updates to Analysis page for detailed update information about GISTEMP v4.


Contacts/Personnel

Before contacting us, please check if your question about the GISTEMP analysis is already answered in the FAQ.

If the FAQ does not answer your question, please address your inquiry to Dr. Reto Ruedy.

Other researchers currently participating in the GISTEMP analysis include Michael Hendrickson, Maxwell Elling, Alexander Herron, Dr. Makiko Sato, and Dr. Nathan Lenssen.

The GISTEMP analysis was initiated by Dr. James E. Hansen, now retired. It is currently led by Dr. Gavin Schmidt.

Past members on the GISTEMP team have included Dr. Sergej Lebedeff, Dr. Helene Wilson, Jay Glascoe, Avraham Persin, Dr. Ken Lo, and others. We also thank Nick Barnes et al. at the Clear Climate Code project for their contributions.

Citation

When referencing the GISTEMP v4 data provided here, please cite both this webpage and also our most recent scholarly publication about the data. In citing the webpage, be sure to include the date of access.

Graphics from these GISTEMP pages are subject to NASA Image and Media guidance. Per those guidelines, graphics you may create using the website tools here do not require permission for you to use elsewhere, but acknowledgment of their source should be given. Please credit "NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies" or, if space is limited, "NASA GISS/GISTEMP".


Background, History and Updates

The basic GISS temperature analysis scheme was defined in the late 1970s by James Hansen when a method of estimating global temperature change was needed for comparison with one-dimensional global climate models. The analysis method was fully documented in Hansen and Lebedeff (1987). Several papers describing updates to the analysis followed over the following decades, most recently that of Hansen et al. (2010), as well as the uncertainty quantification of Lenssen et al. (2019).

For further details, please see the GISTEMP Background, History, and References pages. We also maintain a running record of modifications made to the analysis on our Updates to Analysis page.

The GISTEMP analysis is updated regularly. Graphs and tables are posted around the middle of every month using the latest GHCN and ERSST data. The update incorporates reports for the previous month as well as late reports and corrections for earlier months.

Source Code

Programs used in the GISTEMP analysis and documentation on their use are available for download. The programs assume a Unix-like operating system and require familiarity with Python for installation and use.


Tables of Global and Hemispheric Monthly Means and Zonal Annual Means

Combined Land-Surface Air and Sea-Surface Water Temperature Anomalies (Land-Ocean Temperature Index, L-OTI)

The following are plain-text files in tabular format of temperature anomalies, i.e. deviations from the corresponding 1951-1980 means.

  • Global-mean monthly, seasonal, and annual means, 1880-present, updated through most recent month: TXT, CSV
  • Northern Hemisphere-mean monthly, seasonal, and annual means, 1880-present, updated through most recent month: TXT, CSV
  • Southern Hemisphere-mean monthly, seasonal, and annual means, 1880-present, updated through most recent month: TXT, CSV
  • Zonal annual means, 1880-present, updated through most recent complete year: TXT, CSV

AIRS v6 and AIRS v7 Temperature Anomalies

The following tables show anomalies based on AIRS data vs. 2007-2016. Corresponding L-OTI anomaly data are also provided.

  • Global-mean monthly, seasonal, and annual means, 2002-present, updated through most recent month: TXT, CSV
  • Northern Hemisphere-mean monthly, seasonal, and annual means, 2002-present, updated through most recent month: TXT, CSV
  • Southern Hemisphere-mean monthly, seasonal, and annual means, 2002-present, updated through most recent month: TXT, CSV
  • Zonal annual means, 2002-present, updated through most recent complete year: TXT, CSV

Gridded Monthly Temperature Anomaly Data

Users interested in the entire gridded surface air temperature anomaly data may download netCDF files containing selected series on a regular 2°×2° grid or the basic SBBX binary files.

Compressed NetCDF Files (regular 2°×2° grid)

Compressed Zarr Directories (regular 2°×2° grid)

Compressed Basic Subbox Grid Series (equal-area grid)

Also available are various FORTRAN programs and instructions to create (time series of) regular gridded anomaly maps from the basic files. Be sure to read the README file for discussion of the files' binary format.

References

Please see the GISTEMP references page for citations to publications related to this research. Copies of many of our papers are available in the GISS publications database.